TRIBES IN RAJA AMPAT, PAPUA.

suku_raja_ampat_papua

 

Cultural communities can be classified based on the Raja Ampat islands spread across large and small islands around it. The classification is as follows:

Waigeo Island.

Waigeo and surrounding islands inhabited by several tribes or sub-tribes are grouped into indigenous tribes and tribal settlers.

1. Tribe Wawiyai (Wauyai)

Wawiyai ethnic group is a group of tribes who inhabit the region north bay Kabui in South Waigeo. In the survey it is found that these tribe inhabits only one village namely Kampung Wawiyai. However, Wawiyai ethnic groups who has direct lineage with the history of Wawiyai inhabits island Friwen, called the Wawiyai Man mon.

2. Tribe Kawe

Kawe ethnic group is a group of natives who inhabit the region Waigeo west island Waigeo. The ethnic groups living in Kampung Salio, Selpele, Waisilip, and Bianci. Kampung Selpele and Salio still the dominant area with Kawe rate while Bianci and Waisilip already a heterogeneous villages and population, while Kawe is very little.

3. Tribe Laganyan

Laganyan ethnic groups is a native of the island Waigeo who inhabit three villages around the Gulf Mayalibit, namely Kampung Araway, Lopintol and BeO.

4. Tribe Ambel (-Waren)

Waigeo Island area is for customary tribal region of Ambel located in the east to the north and the north coast of the Gulf Mayalibit Waigeo Island. Villages, which are residential area of ??many tribes are Kabilol, Go, Waifoi, Wairemak, Kalitoko, and Warsamdin (in the Gulf Mayalibit), Kabare and Kapadiri (in North Waigeo). Residents in the village at the mouth of the Gulf Warsamdin Mayalibit and Kampung Kabaré in North Waigeo has been mixed with a population of Biak tribe.

5. Tribe Biak

Biak tribal population is a population that migrated to Raja Ampat Islands and Noemfoor of Biak Island in the Gulf of Paradise (Gulf Geelvink), east of the Raja Ampat Islands. They migrated in some period of time in the history, starting from hongi shipping and payment of tribute to the Sultan of Tidore / Ternate.

Migration is expected to occur in the latter years of the end of the Dutch government (circa 1950s). Biak tribal population in general inhabit coastal areas and islands in Waigeo, ie all Ayau Islands (Kampung Dorekar, Yenkawir, Meosbekwan, Rutum and Reni), North Waigeo (Kampung Rauki, Bonsayor, Kabare, Andei, Asukweri, Boni, Warwanai , and Mnier), East Waigeo (Kampung Puper, Yenbekaki, Urbinasopen, Yensner), South Waigeo (Kampung Saonek, Saporkren, Yenbeser, Yenwaupnor, Sawingrai, Kapiksawar, Yenbuba, Yenbekwan, Sawandarek, Kurkapa, Arborek, Kabui).

In the region of West Waigeo, Biak tribal population inhabit villages like, Bianci, Mutus, Meos Manggara, Manyaifun, Safkabu and Fam in Kep. Fam. Also, Biak tribe spread to Gag Island. Biak tribal group is further divided into several sub-tribes, the Biak Beteu (Beser), Biak Wardo and Biak USBA.

1. Other Tribes

Other ethnic groups that historically have a relationship with Raja Ampat is a tribal group Tidore, Ternate, Seram and other tribes in Kep. Maluku. There is a group that migrated later, they are Bugis and Buton.

2. Tribe Batanta

These ethnic groups are thought to be a native of the island of Batanta. Batanta tribes inhabit the southern region, namely Kampung Wailebet Batanta Island and located in the Strait Yenanas Sagawin side by side to Salawati island.

3. Tribe Biak

The majority of the population in the north to the east of the island of Batanta is Biak tribe. The population of almost all the villages in this region use Biak language. Villages are Yensawai, Arefi, Amdui and partly Yenanas. Biak tribal groups in this Batanta called Biak Kafdaron. Historically, the Biak Kafdaron is a group that migrated to the island Batanta follow a trail ride legend Koreri (Mansar Manarmaker) from Biak Island to the west.

4. Other tribes

Other ethnic groups who live on the island of Batanta derived from the big island of New Guinea and the Moluccas, but the population is not much unless they are working on snails company and government officials.

Salawati

1. Tribe Tepin

Tepin is the indigenous tribe who inhabits the north coast of Salawati. They inhabit the village Kalyam and Solol in Sagawin Strait. The language used is called Tepin language.

2. Parts Fiat, Domu, Waili and Butlih

There are indigenous tribal small group in Salawati, which inhabit the area of Samate, Kapatlap, Kalobo and Sakabu. The language used is the language Tepin with dialect variations in each tribe. Nonetheless, every tribe call their language according to their tribal name

3. Tribe Moi (Moi-Maya)

Moi tribal groups, often referred to as Maya or Moi Moi, inhabiting beach east Salawati predicted to migrate from the great plains west Bird’s Head, which is a tribal region Moi. It is very likely due to the eastern region Salawati is dealing directly with the plains of the Bird’s Head and is limited only by the Strait of Sele. The language used is the language Moi.

4. Other tribes

Other ethnic groups inhabiting Salawati are tribes such as ethnic immigrants Biak, Java, Ternate, Tidore, Tobelo, Seram, Bugis and Buton. They are scattered in villages in Salawati like Kalyam, Solol, Samate, Kapatlap, Kalobo and Sakabu.

Misool

1. Tribe Matbat

Matbat are an indigenous tribe in Misool Island, which was originally inhabited the mountainous area. They are expected to go down and make settlements in coastal areas during the reign of the Netherlands (1940-1950). Their livelihood is farming and gathering sago. But now there has been a shift in livelihood. They started to become fishermen although not as the main livelihood. Matbat ethnic groups can be found in the village of Salafen, Atkari, Lenmalas, Folley, Tomolol, Kapatcool, Aduwei, and Magey.

2. Tribe Misool

Misool ethnic group is a group of tribes who migrated to Misool Island about 100 years ago and is an ethnic group that has experienced ethnic mix so long to form an ethnic community with its own identity.

The group is thought to originate from Waigeo Island, which by some experts called by both the group and the Mayan language, but they also have experience with a mixture of ethnic groups such as the Maluku Islands Seram, Tobelo, Tidore and Ternate. It can be seen from the physical form of this tribal population, and also of the history of the tribe of Misool own. Matbat people call people from the tribe as Mat Lou Misool, which means ‘the beach’.

The language used is called the language of Misool. Villages in Misool island are Waigama, Lilinta, Fafanlap, Gamta, Yellu, Harapan Jaya, Jaya Enterprises. In general settlement Misool rate slightly greater than Matbat tribal villages and the population is also slightly more than the population of the township Matbat tribe.

3. Tribe Biga

Biga tribe is a group of tribes from Waigeo who migrated to Misool Island. These ethnic groups inhabit the village of Biga on the banks of the Biga, which means ‘place of sago’.

4. Tribe Biak

Biak tribe who inhabit several villages on the island of Biak Misool is the rate of sub-tribe of Biak Beteu (Beser). They inhabit the village of Rat Island, Solal, Wejim and Satukurano.

5. Other tribes

Other tribes who inhabit the islands of Misool are migrants from Seram, Tobelo, Ternate and Tidore. In addition, newcomers on the island is a resident of Buton, Bugis, Ambon, Java, and others.

Kofiau Island.

Kofiau District which consists of several islands are generally inhabited by residents of Biak tribe, sub tribe Biak Beteu (Beser). These tribes inhabit the village of Deer, Dibalal and Tolobi.

HUNTING PAPUA ORCHIDS

anggrek hitam

 

My departure to Papua was certainly approved by my family. Before leaving, my mother advised, “Do not forget to bring orchids for me”, so she said. Initially I only consider passing because I think orchids in Papua, there is also in Java.

This orchid hunting trip I started at the third day of the trip in Papua. The first time I realized that how special orchid Papua was when we visited the Forest Wapsdori. On the way to the waterfall Wapsdori, we saw many kinds of orchids and they are all really beautiful. Instantly I remembered my mother’s message that she wanted orchids. In the forest of Wapsdori, I saw some kinds of ground orchid, tiger and rabbit orchids. I wanted to pick and bring it home. However, I realized that we should not be arbitrary in picking herbs in the forest.

Returning to visit Wapsdori forest, I was determined to look for orchids that only exist in Papua, to take them home. My second trip orchid hunting was when our team was in the area of ??West Supiori, Biak. Down the river and explore the natural reserve Wabudori was really amazed me. These orchids just looked like ordinary tall grass and they were anywhere. Even when we were down on the Wabudori river on the way home, we saw a very large orchid flower once and white. Unfortunately, because of the speed of the boat we were on, making us unable to photograph and picking flowers. Foundered again my intention to have orchids.

Upon my return in Biak after visiting Supiori, we popped into one of the famous lake, the Blue Pool. A very strange phenomenon because the pool is really blue, but there is no water plants which make it blue. “Maybe because the mineral content”, said my partner. Around the pool there are orchids that I often have encountered in the forest. Therefore, once we are satisfied to take pictures, I took myself to inquire with one resident who was there regarding the orchids. It turned out that he has a lot of orchids in his house. Finally I bought three kinds of orchids to take home. Thank goodness my intentions finally came true.

Although orchids were already in my hand, but I was still looking for one type of orchid that only exist in Papua, black orchid. As the name implies, this orchid has flower with black color. I thought this would be the orchid gift special for my mother. But it looked like I need to refrain from having this orchid, since this black orchid is classified as protected species, so it could not be brought outside Papua land. In addition, because the black orchid is very difficult to get so the price is very expensive. So I would not want to be discouraged to get the orchids.

In the midst of sorrow since I could not get black orchid, I cheered after hearing that we will visit the Orchid Garden and Bird Park. Indeed I could not hunt orchids there, but at least I can get to know and see the various types of orchids in Papua. Unfortunately, while visiting there, orchids were not done at the time of flowering. So, I could only be satisfied with seeing the leaves of the orchid without being able to see the beauty of the flowers.

Our team trip continued to Nabire. Driving around the islands in the Gulf Paradise of course was very enjoyable. Even more fun again, at the time we spent the night in one of the islands in the Gulf of Paradise, the Moor Island, I was given some orchids by locals. The orchid is a Tiger orchid, iron orchid, and Kribo orchid. Papua hunting trip was really enjoyable. For orchids lovers, perhaps Papua is a paradise. It can be said that all types of orchids are available here. In fact, you simply come to the forest and pick any kind of orchid that you want.

THE EVOLUTION OF CULTURE AND LANGUAGES IN RAJA AMPAT

rumah-matbat

 

Language and culture are two integral elements, which can not be separated from the life of every person. Everyone, inevitably, was born in an environment of a particular language and culture. It is the same condition existing in Raja Ampay.

Every tribe in Raja Ampat tends to express their ethnic identity and language in accordance with the names of the ethnic groups. One example, every ethnic group tries to mention the language used by the tribal name, although on the other hand they claim that the language they use is also used in other villages or in other islands. This phenomenon is common. Each tribe has always tries to identify their existence to other groups so that their identity is also recognized and appreciated by other groups.

Tribal groups in Raja Ampat also always call their territories according to their own language. In Raja Ampat was found that a place, be it mountain, headlands, bays, islands and others, have different names depending on the ethnic groups living in the surrounding areas. One example is the naming of the islands in the region Waigeo. The name is written in the map and also used today by society in this region, derived from Biak language. However, the natives as Wawiyai people who have customary rights in the region of South Waigeo, calling the islands with its own name according to their language.

In Raja Ampat the situation is very interesting, look at the language and culture around the Gulf Mayalibit, Misool and Friwen Island. The inside of the Gulf Mayalibit inhabited by two ethnic groups namely Laganyan tribe in western and eastern Ambel tribes to the north. Laganyan people living in three villages namely Araway, BeO and Lopintol, while Ambel people inhabit villages like Kabilol, Go, Waifoi, Wairemak, Kalitoko and Warsamdin. These two tribes are linguistically and anthropologically different, even though they are geographically village not too far from each other. But this is a three villages Laganyan Islamic village, here there has been a cultural mix between Laganyan culture and Islam, especially regarding the values, norms, and habits of life. While Ambel ethnic groups are adherents of Christianity. Christian teaching has influenced the cultural elements Ambel especially mindset, values ??and norms and habits. The same thing happened in Misool. The whole village Matbat rate still shows the characteristics of the original settlement of Papua as seen in Kampung Magey and Aduwei. While the majority of township Misool have characterized the settlement rate similar to the characteristics of the township outside Papua, as in the Moluccas and Sulawesi.

All the people of the tribe Misool are Muslim and has long left the majority of indigenous and tribal customs. While the majority Matbat are Christian and still maintain their customs. As already described, the language used by both adherents of different cultures, different also. All the people of the tribe Misool are using Misool language, and all the people Matbat are using Matbat language.

Raja Ampat is actually an archipelago, since Raja Ampat is composed of 640 islands. Matbat population on the other hand can use Misool language to communicate with their neighbors, but people can not use language Misool Matbat.

Biga people of the tribe also characterize patterns of settlement, livelihood and other lifestyle habits are the same as those Matbat, which is similar to the culture of Papua. Nonetheless, culture and Matbat Biga different in many respects. The second language is also very different tribes.

Community groups that inhabit the island Friwen, as already described, is an example of a situation in which the dominant culture, in this case the culture of Biak, affecting minority culture, culture Wawiyai. Friwen population is Wawiyai rate of descent Wawiyai Man mon. They have undergone a change in culture and language so that their culture is now dominated by the culture and language of Biak. These things happen in addition to the history of the tribe who are in Friwen Wawiyai, as well as economic factors and social. Which becomes very interesting is the village of Friwen is not too far from the village Wawiyai, the only village in the northern Gulf Wawiyai Kabui and is the origin of the village Wawiyai Friwen. But the people in the village Wawiyai still use the language fluently and maintain their culture very well.

Raja Ampat Doberai Eco Resort maintains and respects all the culture and languages in Raja Ampat. Raja Ampat Doberai Eco Resort mingles perfectly with all the ethnics in Raja Ampat. Raja Ampat Doberai Eco Resort also facilitates guests who are interested with the anthropology of Raja Ampat by bringing the guests to there islands.

LANGUAGE OF THE RAJA AMPAT

Raja ampat

Raja Ampat region is a region that is very unique with a series of islands large and small, which greatly affects both the state of the language and its speakers as well as the cultural and social system that is embraced by the people in this region. In addition, this region is a border region between groups of languages ??and cultures in the west, namely the language and culture in the Moluccas and groups of languages ??and cultures in Papua.

With the geographical conditions, which is an archipelago and the most western part of the circuit island big island of New Guinea, Raja Ampat Islands into areas that are anthropological and linguistic is an area that gets the title of diversity (an area of ??diversity). This diversity is very precise term used to describe the situation of culture and language is a blend of cultures and native languages ??Raja Ampat with cultural and language brought by immigrants, both from other regions of Papua and outside Papua. This mix of cultures and languages ??has happened since centuries ago.

Languages ??deployment in Raja Ampat

From the survey conducted, Raja Ampat languages ??can be grouped as follows:

  1. Language Ma’ya;

That the language used by the tribal community Wawiyai (Gulf Kabui), tribal Laganyan (Kampung Araway, BeO and Lopintol) and tribal Kawe (Kampung Selpele, Salio, Bianci and Waisilip). They use a language that consists of several dialects, namely dialect Wawiyai, Laganyan, and Kawe.

  1. Language Ambel (-Waren);

That the language used by the inhabitants of several villages in the eastern Gulf of Mayalibit, such Warsamdin, Kalitoko, Wairemak, Waifoi, Go, and Kabilol, and Kabaré and Kapadiri in North Waigeo.

  1. Language Batanta.

The language used by the people who inhabit the south Island Batanta, namely residents of Kampung Wailebet and Kampung Yenanas.

  1. Language Tepin.

The language used by the population in north eastwards Salawati, namely residents in Kampung Kalyam, Solol, Kapatlap, and Samate, with several dialects, namely, dialect Kalyam Solol, Kapatlap and Samate.

  1. Language Moi.

This language is the language used by the residents in Kampung Kalobo, Sakabu, and partly Kampung Samate. Moi language used in Salawati Moi is a dialect derived from the mainland west the Bird’s Head, which is directly adjacent to the Strait of Sele.

  1. Language Matbat.

Matbat term is the name given to identify resident and native language Misool Island. The original person called the Matbat Misool and their language is called the language Matbat. Residents who are native speakers of this Matbat spread in Kampung Salafen, Lenmalas, Atkari, Folley, Tomolol, Kapatcool, Aduwei, and Magey.

  1. Language Misool.

This title is given by the population speaking Misool Misool own. This Misool language different from the language Matbat. People who use this Misool language called as Matlou by the Matbat, which means the beach. People who use the language Misool Misool generally Muslim, scattered in Kampung Waigama, Fafanlap, Gamta, Lilinta, Yelu, Business Jaya, and Harapan Jaya. This language is also used by some Muslim villages in Salawati like Sailolo of Muslim villages, and Samate.

  1. Language Biga.

This language is one of the languages ??of migration that is in the southeast of the island of Misool, which is used by the inhabitants of the village on the banks of the River Biga Biga (South East Misool District). Population and language is expected to migrate from Waigeo Island, from Kampung Kabilol, speaking Ambel. Researchers need to conduct further research to determine whether the language has similarities with language Biga Ambel.

  1. Biak language.

Biak language in Raja Ampat is a language that is migrating from the island of Biak and Noemfoor together with the spread of Biak to Raja Ampat. Biak language is divided into several dialects, namely Biak Beteu (Beser), Biak Wardo, Biak USBA, Biak Kafdaron, and Biak Noemfoor.

  1. Other Languages.

With the current population migration from the Maluku Islands and other western regions, then there are also several languages ??spoken by migrants in Raja Ampat as the language of Ternate, Seram, Tobelo, Bugis, Buton, and Java. These languages ??are minority languages ??because speakers are not too much.

Lingua Franca in Raja Ampat

History shows that the Raja Ampat Biak and Malay language has long been used as a language of everyday communication among tribes in Raja Ampat, especially in the northern part of the Raja Ampat. Use of Biak language as the language of everyday communication (lingua franca) in this region is supported by the spread rate and Biak language dominant in coastal areas and islands of Waigeo Island in the north to Salawati and Kofiau in the south. While Malay Papua is the most common communication language used in every day activities in the Raja Ampat.

In the history of civilization in Raja Ampat, Papua Malay language plays a role not only as the language of instruction used at any time, but also to strengthen the relationship between all ethnic groups as well as the language of communication with other ethnic groups in the region outside the Raja Ampat. Until now the language is still used as a lingua franca, though Malay Papua very dominant compared to the Biak language.