CONSERVATION, FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF RAJA AMPAT COMMUNITY

 

Terumbu_karang

 

 

Conservation values ??is the starting point to understand the behavior of the culture of Raja Ampat society. Nature gives life to them. Interaction with the nature teach them how to survive by using simple or traditional technology. Conservation values ??are the manifestations of the values of their religion ??or beliefs that they embrace. These values run in the process of interaction with the nature around them.

Not all of the Raja Amat people know the term “Conservation” in Papua. However, they know and realize that “WE MUST PROTECT OUR SEA, AND THE SEA WOULD RESULT A LOT”.

That is a couple of sentences implies conservation in very deep meaning. Most of the coastal communities never heard about conservation and protection of coral reefs in the Raja Ampat. 6th grade elementary school students from Kampung Aduwei, revealed in their language, Matbat, “Min bomb genie na or in Indonesian means the fish should not be bombed. They heard the conservation and protection of coral reefs of Raja Ampat from the government and village facilitators of some conservation programs.

In addition, environmental conservation posters also adorn most of the angle and space of their school. Based on the question why it is necessary to protect fish, elementary school students replied “fish make their house in coral, and fish lay eggs tin it”. Protection and preservation of the marine told them not to throw garbage in the sea. They are also tuoght not to be pierced turtles, although they have a habit of eating turtle meat. They classify turtle as meat from sea, while pork and chicken are the meat land. In their thoughts and perspectives conservation is simply the prohibition to not damage the environment.

For the last a decade, the Raja Ampat community are beginning to understand and familiarize them self with the so called “Marine conservation efforts”, but still in the process of protecting the area from ??damage, from the threat of destructive fishing.

What about adults? For people who have grown up, their understanding is that conservation is to maintain and preserve the sea, although, they do not know the intentions and purposes or the exact results of the program.. A third class of high school students, as well as other students and friends interpret conservation as prohibition shall not dispose organic and inorganic, and should not do bomb fishing.

Similarly, with the people who migrated and settled in Sorong in the 1980s, they said “conservation is not to poison fish, and destroy coral. They also said that coral reef is the home for fish, where fish lay their eggs.

Conservation is not so familiar, but they know the marine areas protected are actually for the benefit of their children, grand children and great grand children.. Village elders, in the language Matbat / Matlou) states that protect the beauty of the coral is conservation. He said “coral reef is home for fish, and killing fish means we kill ourselves. He continued, “when coral reef have been destroyed, where should we go fishing”. Said the Grandfather who looked still in good shape, suggesting that conservation is synonymous with what they have inherited from their ancestors.

Areas that become a breeding fish need to be protected and preserved for the sake of their children, so children can enjoy what they enjoy today. Indonesian said, it is like eating simalakama fruit. Conservation has two opposite sides, one side has a long-term humanitarian missions, another side “turn off” their life.

People who previously made a regional location as the main fishing ground, after being charged as a core of “no take zone area”, much more with extreme “no take zone area”, causing them to lose barns fish. This is a difficult choice taken for the Raja Ampat community. Conservation area at the heart of their lives, without any transfer of alternative livelihoods will turn off their lives.

Indeed, they began to realize that conservation program will be benefited by themselves within a period of time. But they need income to the household in order to continue their lives. They need money for school and health costs of their household. If both conditions can be fulfilled and secured properly, it is not impossible that an important region of their barn fish will be fully conserved sincerely and absolutely.

NO TAKE ZONE

Determination of the no take zone is not solely due to the intention to make it as a schooling fish and spawning ground, but also to turn it to become a fish factory. Determination of the core zone is in the area that had previously been fishing ground. Though for fisherman communities, the location is the heart of their lives.

Indeed they are consciously aware of the conservation purposes are for the benefit of their children and grandchildren. However, the people who live at this time also need to live prosperously. Conservation programs take place in a number of areas, stating that their conservation will actually give fruitful in the future and long-term duration. Therefor, We have had many who sacrificed or given locations for the development of marine protected areas in their traditional territory.

Their main fishing areas have been submitted for the purposes of conservations area. They dream that what they have sacrificed currently provide long-term benefits for their grandchildren. Limited access to fishing area with the application of “no take zone” is an expensive price they have to pay today.

Raja Ampat Doberai Eco Resort definitely supports any kinds of programs, efforts, or initiatives with the outcome of marine and environmental conservation. Raja Ampat Doberai Eco Resort strictly rejects or prevent guests who want to do fishing, spear fishing, littering, and bring all kinds of water sports that uses machine as their main energy, such as jet ski, parasailing, and so forth and son on. Raja Ampat Doberai Eco Resort also nurture and spread the seed of coral reef in many empty areas around the Urai island, the land based of Raja Ampat Doberai Eco Resort.

FACILITIES FOR EDUCATION IN RAJA AMPAT

Sekolah

Education is very important for the development of human resources. In general, limited infrastructure for education in Raja Ampat is significantly similar with other part of Papua. This poor infrastructure for education causing educational programs recommended by the government runs less than optimal.

Education Facilities

Success in education is largely determined by the availability of facilities and infrastructure. Physical facilities of the school buildings are available in almost all the districts ranging from elementary school (SD) up to Junior High School (JSS), while the upper secondary education (high school) only in Waisai (South Waigeo), Waigama (Misool), and Fafanlap (South East Misool). Due to of this condition, many children should go to Sorong when they are in school junior and senior high schools.

Some of the condition of school buildings, particularly elementary schools, are very alarming. Many school buildings were damaged so it is not suitable anymore for teaching and learning activities. Due to space classroom limitations, many schools adopt the policy to divide one classroom into 2 parts, so it can be used for two different grade levels. However, still there are many children do not attend school because of inadequate classroom. This condition is clearly disrupt the process of learning and impacts on the quality of the students produced.

In addition to the physical condition of the school, other things that interfere with the learning process is the presence of teachers. Many teachers are not settled in a job and sometimes schools were closed. Weak commitment of teachers to teach in remote areas often force them to go to the city and left his job in a long time.

There are even cases where teachers did not come to school while students should be prepared for the final exam. Because of this incident, then in the end they can not follow the test.

The total number of primary school teachers in the district of Raja Ampat as many as 352 people. When you see the number of elementary schools in Raja Ampat is still a shortage of teachers. Ideally, an elementary school is serviced by 8-10 teachers. Means the current number of teachers is only reached 55% of the ideal conditions required. Thus, Raja Ampat still requires elementary school teacher for 288-448 people.

Limitations of teachers is causing a teacher to teach in more than one class at the same time. There are some cases as a teacher who handles nearly 200 students consisting of grade 1 and 2 (in Wejim). There is even a teacher who must teach in grade 1 to grade 6 (in Atkari), although this is not something that takes place continuously. This circumstances most probably takes place in other regions in Raja Ampat.

Ratio of Pupils, Teachers and Classroom

Ratio of student to the classroom and teacher is a number that indicates the educational services received by each student. The student-teacher ratios in elementary school (SD) in Raja Ampat is 24. This means, one teacher handles / educate the average 24 students. Yet the student-classroom ratio is 26, which means 1 classrooms accommodate / filled an average of 26 students.

When compared with the number owned by the Province of Papua and Indonesia in the academic year 2003/2004, the conditions of Raja Ampat is not far below the Papua and Indonesia (Table 17-3). When you look at these figures it means education serve to every student in the district of Raja Ampat is slightly below the Papua and Indonesia.

Organizers Education

The responsibility of providing education is not just the responsibility of governments, but also the responsibility of each component of the nation. Therefore, the Government is also encouraging the private sector to play an active role in developing education. As a form of responsibility for the matter, many private schools were established in Raja Ampat.

Raja Ampat Doberai Eco Resort contributes as many as possible to give access for children to education. Activities that Raja Ampat Doberai Eco Resort has been doing is to financially support its local employees to continues for higher level of education.

Raja Ampat Doberai Eco Resort also facilitates guests who are concerned and willing to donate things to support children in local villages to go to school. Many the guests of Raja Ampat Doberai Eco Resort are considered as huge national company that has national corporate social responsibility.

UNIQUE TRADITIONS IN PAPUA, INCLUDING RAJA AMPAT

Bakar-Batu-di-Papua

 

  1. BAKAR BATU (FUEL STONES)

Tradition Bakar Batu – One of the oldest cultural traditions in Papua, fuel stones, can be regarded as a symbol of gratitude and fraternity. But in certain areas fuel stones usually performed in a ceremonial procession of death.

Tradition Bakar Batu (fuel stones) is a way to use by people in Papua, to cook several types of food (yam, cassava, Pig meat and vegetables) on a rock that has been heated. There is a certain technic and steps to heat the stones such as: setting up a hole to prepare firewood and stones, along with foods that will be cooked. Once the holes are dug, the stones that have been collected are arranged by size. Large stone are placed at the bottom, and at the top will be arranged firewood. The next layer of firewood will be coated again with smaller stones. Then combustion process is carried out to heat the stones. After the stone gets hot, then the food that has been prepared in such a way arranged above the stone. Then after all the foods are cooked, all the participant will eat together as a party or ceremony of something.

Tradition of fuel stones has some title or name that is different for each region, but usually known as Barapen.

  1. CUT FINGER

There are many ways to show a sense of sorrow when one member of family pass away. However, for Dani tribe, inhabiting the Baliem Valley in Papua, sadness and grief are manifested by cutting a finger, if there is a family member such as a husband or wife, father, mother, son and brother pass away. That must done tradition, according to them, is a symbol of the very deep sadness of having lost of one member in the family. Further more, cutting finger anyway is meant to prevent re-catastrophe that caused death in the family.

Technically tradition of cutting a finger is done with a variety of ways, ranging from the use of sharp objects such as knives, axes, or machetes. Another way is by biting her knuckles to break up, tied with a rope so that the blood flow stops and knuckles be dead then newly made cutting a finger.

  1. TRADITION ARAREM, BIAK TRIBE.

Another unique tradition in Papua is Ararem, the procession of bringing dowry by Biak tribe. In this procession, dowry will be delivered on foot, accompanied by singing and dancing. Interestingly, the tradition Ararem is done by carrying and waving red and white flag, the country flag. There are no references that can explain why in this tradition flag is used. The uniqueness of tribal traditions in Papua by Biak in bringing dowry with pageantry, and carry the flag of the country, most likely the only one in Indonesia and is not done by other tribes outside Papua.

  1. TRADITION TATOOS

During this time people just think that the tattoo tradition in Indonesia, is only done by the Dayaks in Kalimantan. But in Papua, there is apparently a body tattooing tradition, which has been running for generations. Some tribes are usually adorning their body with tattoos are Moi and Meyakh tribe in West Papua.

Tattoo motifs affixed to the body of the tribes in Papua have different and specific characteristics. These tattoos usually have geometric patterns or stripes and dots circular triangular cone, or tridiagonal are aligned.

Tools and materials used in the making of tattoo in Papua also has a unique, including the use of thorn trees sago or fish bones, and soak the ink into a mixture of fine charcoal and olive tree sap. Generally tattoo done on the chest, cheeks, eyelids, calves, hips, back, and also in parts of the hand.

Raja Ampat Doberai Eco Resort comes across with many Raja Ampat people who originated from those regions above, and still practicing the traditions in Raja Ampat. Raja Ampat Doberai Eco Resort often times brought guests to the community who performed the tradition as a unique attractions.

LANGSAT, TYPICAL TROPICAL FRUIT IN RAJA AMPAT

pohon-langsat

 

Three of Langsat is one of the original fruit that grows in Indonesia and is one of the woody plants that lived during chronic. Duku (Lansium Domesticum corr) is starting to spread widely in different parts of the continent of Asia, especially Southeast Asia. Olive fruit is a type of fruit that goes into the tribe Meliaceae. This plant grows in Raja Ampat and spread evenly on all the islands. The fruit is exactly the same as Duku and flesh is the same except that there is a difference of complexioned from duku. Olive fruit is usually no different from duku durable, as well as taste sweeter than duku complexioned.

Actually there are several types of olive fruit or duku. It’s called the tribe, there complexioned and sosokan, and there are also duku-complexioned. Complexioned has a thin tree, with branches high above, and not shady slim shape as tree. Its fruit branch is long. There are usually consists of 15-20 seeds or fruits in the bunch. Duku or olive fruit has many health benefits for our body. For more details you can see a little review below.

Benefits of Langsat Fruit

Olive fruit that looks almost like longan is proved to have some good benefits to health, and here are some health benefits duku are for:

Before we discuss the benefits and efficacy of olive fruit, we must first look at what nutrients are present in the olive fruit, so the fruit is very popular and widely sold in fruit market. As quoted from various sources, nutrients in the olive fruit are as follows:

In 100 grams of olive fruit contains 70 calories, 1.0 grams protein, 0.2 grams fat, 13 grams carbohydrates, 0.7 grams of minerals, calcium 18 mg, phosphorus 9 mg and 0.9 mg of iron. For calories, minerals and iron, olive fruit has higher than apples or oranges. Then what is the usefulness for your health?

  1. Smoothen your digestion system. It contains a lot of dietary fiber or fibers that can aid digestion. If you are having digestion problems the olive fruit can be one solution for you.
  1. Treating worms and fever. Its complexioned big ones and bitter can be utilized as a deworming medication. Mashed olive seeds into a powder.
  1. Prevent cancer and efficacy further olive fruit that is from the skin of the fruit. The skin of the fruit can be used as a cure colon cancer, and cleaning radicals in the body that cause cancer.
  1. Treating poisonous insect bites. It is used herein are tan bark, the skin can be useful for poisonous insect bites wood, scorpion bites, as a cure dysentery and malaria drugs.
  1. Skin whitening. Olive fruit is good for health that it can also be felt by the skin, because it can be used to whiten the skin. Essence of complexioned sweet fruit that rub on the skin would inhibit the enzyme tyrosinase. In addition complexioned is also efficacious to prevent permanent skin damage.
  1. Drugs to expel mosquito. Its complexioned is good to repel mosquitoes. it has been tested by experts from IPB Bandung, and the result was able to repel mosquitoes with olive skin.

Lots of content of duku which is very good for health, including the composition of nutrients that exist in every duku already quite a lot, which is quite a lot of calories is 70 cal per 100gram duku, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, natural minerals, calcium and fisfir good for bones, iron and some other useful content.

The content benefits a lot for our health. By consuming duku, you can meet any energy needed every day by your body as well as to prevent us from some deadly diseases like cancer.

Raja Ampat Doberai Eco Resort also introduces many typical fruits of Raja Ampat and one of them is the olive fruit. Fruit is often sold by the local community and serve as a source of income for them. Olive fruit in the Raja Ampat has a very distinct flavor. The uniqueness of this fruit flavors receive special attention from guests in Raja Ampat Doberai Eco Resort. One of the agenda offered by Raja Ampat Doberai Eco Resort to guest complexioned is picking fruit in the garden. By doing this Raja Ampat Doberai Eco Resort in preserving local plants is keeping the neighborhood.

NOKEN AS TRADITIONAL BAG OF RAJA AMPAT

Tas noken

 

Camshaft or tote is a cultural heritage that is very famous from Raja Ampat, Papua. This tote is made and has been passed down from generation to generation in Raja Ampat people.

Noken generally are used by people of Papua to bring agricultural products such as vegetables, tubers and also merchandise to their local market. Nokens is made from tree bark fiber Manduam, Nawa tree or forest orchids woven and knitted into yarn tote. However, along with the times, camshaft also made of knitted yarn colorful mattress. Its size also varies, there are small, medium, and large sizes. Most motifs contain elements of indigenous Papuan noken.

Large nokens are used to carry items such as firewood, crop yields, grocery items, or even used for carrying children. While the small size is used to carry personal items. The unique thing is nokens also functioned as a gift for guests and used in ceremonies in Raja Ampat society.

How to use this bag is unique, by hanging in front of head (forehead) and hang it back towards body back over shoulder. In addition to the amount that can be worn, some women even bring more than one camshaft hung around her neck. Usually this noken nested on the back so as not overlapping and weight.

What is interesting about this is the only Papuans are allowed to make nokens. The making of noken itself could symbolize the woman’s maturity. Because if the Papuan women can not make nokens she can not be considered as an adult and it is also requirement for marriage. And the way of making this bag is inherited from generation to generation.

Another interesting point of this traditional bag is that only women are allowed to make. Papuan women who have not been able to make noken often considered immature and not ready to be married. Why men should not make these? Since the camshaft is a symbol of fertility source womb of a woman.

Since December 4, 2012, noken was decided as a world cultural heritage by UNESCO in France by Arley Gill as Chairman of the Committee, which aims to protect and preserve the culture of Papua. And is used by 200 tribes in Papua as a multi-functional bag.

This is the pride of the people from Papua not to be inferior to people from other areas. This cultural heritage continues to be preserved and cared for by the people of Papua to be the intangible cultural heritage and is expected will not extinct by the younger generation.

Raja Ampat Doberai Eco Resort provides package tour to a nearby village to invite local and foreign guests to see closely the process of making those camshaft bags. Besides, Raja Ampat Doberai Eco Resort also provides training in Wawiyai village for housewives on how to make souvenir such as photo frames from shells, mirror frames and others. This is one of many ways Raja Ampat Doberai Eco Resort contributes to maintain the local culture from Raja Ampat, Papua.